Original caption: "A. Oscarella lobularis (Oscarellidae): two color morphs from NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet & Thierry Pérez); B. Plakortis simplex (Plakinidae) specimen hanging from the ceiling of the 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea), a paradise for Homoscleromorpha species (at least 8 species belonging to 4 different genera are present); red arrow indicates the presence of Oscarella microlobata and a green arrow Plakina jani (photo courtesy Thierry Pérez); C. Plakina jani (Plakinidae) detail of the lobes, 3PPs cave (NW Mediterranean Sea) (photo courtesy Jean Vacelet); D. Spicules of Plakinidae: triods, diods and lophose calthrops; E. Spicules of Corticium candelabrum (Plakinidae): calthrops and candelabrum (heterolophose calthrops); F. Corticium candelabrum NW Mediterranean Sea (photos courtesy of Jean Vacelet)."
Image by: NOAA (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic License). Homoscleromorpha. , It has been suggested that Homoscleromorpha are more closely related to eumetazoans than to the other sponge groups, rendering sponges paraphyletic. As their name suggests, Poriferans are characterized by the presence of minute pores called ostia on their body. 687(1): 3-10. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Antiguamente se los incluía dentro de las demosponjas como el orden Homosclerophorida. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 286(1906), 20190831. Homoscleromorpha is phylogenetically well separated from Demospongiae. Image by: Nick Hobgood (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). Homoscleromorpha are exclusively marine sponges that tend to encrust on other surfaces at shallow depths. –– 1.
Las Homoscleromorpha se caracterizan por presentar un esqueleto variable (con o sin espículas de silíce).  This view has not been supported by later work using larger datasets and new techniques for phylogenetic inference, which tend to support sponges as monophyletic, with Homoscleromorpha grouping together with Calcarea.
416–427, https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/ict042. PLoS ONE: 7(7), pp.
Since water is vital to sponges for excretion, feeding, and gas exchange, their body structure facilitates the movement of water through the sponge. Sponge leucon body plan modified from original image by 'Philcha' (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). 17.
Otra característica que diferencia las Homoscleromorpha de otras esponjas es la presencia de un flagelo en los pinacocitos, o células de recubrimiento interno (endopinacocitos) o externo (ectopinacocitos) Hydrobiologia: 687, pp. Demospongiae Gerovasileiou, V., and E. Voultsiadou, 2012.  Therefore, it has been recognized as the fourth class of sponges. By, A sea cucumber on a chicken liver sponge (, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication, Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 Public Domain Dedication. In the Mediterranean Sea, 82% of the species in this taxon can be found in caves, and 41% of them are found nowhere else. Image by Jaleigh Q. Pier, licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Early sponge evolution: A review and phylogenetic framework. In one study, 70% of all Homoscleromorpha families and genera of the Mediterranean Sea were discovered within caves of the region. Global Diversity of Sponges (Porifera). In both Homoscleromorpha and Eumetazoa layers of cells are bound together by attachment to a carpet-like basal membrane composed mainly of "type IV" collagen, a form of collagen not found in other sponges – although the spongin fibers that reinforce the mesohyl of … Palaeoworld: 27, pp. Se reconocen 117 especies agrupadas en 9 géneros. See original source material for licenses associated with video and/or 3D model content. A sea cucumber on a chicken liver sponge (Plakortis sp.)
These sponges are massive or encrusting in form and have a very simple structure with very little variation in spicule form (all spicules tend to be very small). Gazave, E. et al. Revisiting metazoan phylogeny with genomic sampling of all phyla. It is the only order in the monotypic class Homoscleromorpha.
The order is composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae. However due to advances in using genetic data to reconstruct sponge phylogeny, this newly recognized clade was discovered.
2007. Oscarella lobularis. By (Van Soest et al., 2012) (Wikimedia Commons; Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Public Domain Dedication). 2012. They have a leucon body plan and small tetraxon spicules. McGraw Hill Interamericana. Although they are very similar, Plakinidae have structural spicules while Oscarellidae are spicule-free.
Homoscleromorpha is now recognized as the fourth class of sponges. –– 3. Homoscleromorphs or, sometimes, "homosclerophorids") are usually encrusting sponges, found all over the world in cool to tropical marine environments growing like underwater lichen on the surface of hard substrates. Image by: Parent Géry (Wikimedia Commons; Public Domain). Botting, J.P, and Muir, L.A. 2018. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Stromatoporoidea Actualmente son consideradas como una clase aparte, y se reconoce un único orden: Homosclerophorida Dendy, 1905. , On the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, the two families Plakinidae and Oscarellidae have been reinstated. Primarily, their body consists of a thin sheet of cells over a frame (skeleton). Los homoscleromorfos (Homoscleromorpha) son una clase de esponjas (ex phylum Porifera). 1-29. This page was last edited on 15 December 2019, at 23:39.
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